Setting out to understand this city, and by extension, all contemporary cities, we treat it in terms of networked ecologies, a series of codependent systems of environmental mitigation, land-use organization, communication and service delivery. Rather than being executed in conformance with the outline of a plan, they are networked, hypercomplex systems produced by technologies, laws, political pressures, disciplinary desires, environmental constraints and a myriad other pressures, tied together with feedback mechanisms. What matters is that we do not think of these ecologies as discrete terrains, as [Reyner] Banham did, but rather as the sort of networks that artist Mark Lombardi drew – inextricable and impossible, like balls of yarn after visitations by a litter of kittens.

Kazys Varnelis, The Infrastructural City, p.15

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